Tuesday, August 6, 2019

What is TEFL?

Teaching English as a Foreign Language, or TEFL, as it’s most commonly referred, involves teaching English as a foreign language in countries where English is not the primary language.

It is important to understand that TEFL is different from TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages), in that TEFL educators teach English abroad, while English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers educate non-native English Language Learners (ELLs) located within the U.S. However, TEFL educators may find that the acronym TESOL (or versions of it) are often used abroad to describe TEFL.Some estimates put the number of people speaking English in the world at more than 1 billion, which means that more people speak English as a second language than there are native English speakers in the world.Emerging markets all over the world now teach English as a second language, both to school-age children and adults. From Brazil to China to India to France, the world is full of non-native-English speakers, thanks to market and product globalization and the need to communicate with major businesses and industries in the U.S., Great Britain, and Canada.
Further, TEFL educators may also be found in parts of the world where English is widely used, such as Australia. Their work in English-speaking countries often involves specific teaching colloquialisms and idioms.

Where Do TEFL Educators Work?

TEFL educators are, of course, most often found in K-12 classrooms; however, these educators are in high demand in other overseas settings, as well, including:
  • Private language schools
  • Universities
  • Private businesses
  • Government-sponsored programs
  • Charity organizations (e.g., Peace Corps)
  • Religious organizations
  • Private tutoring
The work of TEFL educators varies significantly based on the needs of the people they serve. For example, college students may seek the assistance of TEFL educators to help them prepare for university examinations, while international businesses may call in TEFL teachers to help their employees improve their conversational English.

What Does TEFL Involve?

Teaching English as a Foreign Language involves working abroad; therefore, working as a TEFL teacher involves living in a foreign country, either temporarily, for the completion of a specific job, or permanently, as a freelancer or contracted employee. TEFL may involve private tutoring or working in language and state schools for larger groups.
TEFL does not always require being fluent in another language; however, it is quite typical for foreign employers to request bilingual educators for TESL work. In addition, most educators find that being fluent in another language helps them while living or working abroad.
Teaching English as a foreign language involves being able to convey the English language in an articulate and interesting manner. TEFL educators encourage students to improve their English skills through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. TEFL is often facilitated through the use of course books, audio-visual aids, and technology-based materials. In addition to formal instruction, informal exercises, such as role playing and language games, are often used.
Typical activities for TEFL teachers include:
  • Planning, preparing and delivering lessons
  • Providing feedback on oral and written work
  • Administering examinations and other assessments
  • Creating and writing materials

The Risks and Challenges of Working Abroad

Traveling abroad always involves a certain level of risk, and teaching abroad is no exception. Different cultures, beliefs, and societal norms may all prove challenging for TEFL educators, and threats such as terrorism, civil war, or military disturbances must all be taken into consideration by anyone considering TEFL.
Further, TEFL educators should be aware of unscrupulous language schools that exploit inexperienced TEFL teachers and tutors and the economic stability of many developing countries.
For many TEFL educators, the excitement of working abroad and exploring new cultures and ways of life outweigh the challenges; however, educators teaching abroad are always best served by thoroughly researching destinations before accepting employment.

TEFL Requirements

TEFL requirements vary from one country and one employer to the next; therefore, TEFL instructors should always check with the department of ministry in the country where they desire to teach.
Bilingual educators and/or those who possess master’s degrees in another language or in teaching English as a second/foreign language are always in demand. Individuals without these post-secondary credentials may choose to complete a TEFL or TESOL certification program through an accredited organization. However, not all certification programs are recognized internationally, and there is no single accrediting agency or recognized body for TEFL certification.
TEFL certification courses may be completed online, over the course of a weekend, or on a part-time basis, and many programs are offered through regionally accredited colleges and universities.
Many overseas jobs in TEFL require candidates to possess a degree in education, although it is also common for professionals in areas such as business, math, or science to teach TEFL in business/industry settings. In addition to demonstrating native fluency in English, candidates may be required to show proof of a post-secondary education or specific training and/or experience in TEFL.

Writing Styles: How to Find Yours With Writing Style Examples

Writing styles as authors can differ from person to person.
As a writer, you have a gift of creativity in using your art as something that can elicit feelings. Writing a book may make people laugh, take people on a journey or fill them with knowledge.
Writing is and can be an art form if you use it to express yourself and learn the art of doing it well.Most writers will find themselves falling into a specific style of writing. That could be writing poetry, non-fiction, writing a novel, children’s literature or even screenplays.
This will usually happen around your interests, your education, knowledge of writing and the books you read.
Here’s what you’ll learn about writing styles:
  1. What is writing style?
  2. Types of writing styles
  3. Writing styles examples
  4. How to find your writing style
  5. Read a lot to find your writing style
  6. Be honest about yourself
  7. Write what comes with ease
  8. Express yourself to show your writing style
NOTE: We cover everything in this blog post and much more about the writing, marketing, and publishing process in our VIP Self-Publishing Program. Learn more about it here

What is writing style?

Your writing style is the way in which the narrative of your writing comes across to other readers, including your sentence structure, syntax, and overall voice in order to provide your writing with an overall tone or mood.
Each writer has their own, natural style and this can change from project to project. However, you may find that certain authors typically maintain a cohesive writing style.
Essentially, an author’s writing style can be recognized from work to work.

Types of Writing Styles

There are a few different ways to think of writing styles as an author.
Firstly, you have your personal writing style as an author, which is what we explained above; it’s the specific way your writing reads.
Here are some examples of how an author’s writing style may vary:
  • Wordiness – How much your narrative uses longer, run-on sentences versus short and choppy ones.
  • Syntax – The structure of your sentences, the emphasis, pauses, word order and general style of writing typical sentences.
  • Word choice – This can mean swearing or not, using more complex words versus simpler ones, and more. The word choice in your writing style can help readers understand the perspective of the narration.
  • Tone – The tone in writing is like the attitude the author has toward a subject matter. If they dislike something, the tone could be short and negative, the opposite if they enjoy what they’re writing about.
  • Mood – The mood differs from tone because it’s the overarching feeling readers take away through the writing. The mood can be altered through the use of tone, word choice, and other literary devices.
However, writing style also refers to the intent of what you’re writing.
Here are the 4 main writing styles:
  • Expository Writing – This is the most common type of writing. This blog post is an example of expository writing, as I’m explaining a concept and providing information. However, expository writing often doesn’t include the author’s opinions.
  • Descriptive Writing – You’ll most often find descriptive writing in fiction (and creative non-fiction too!), as it’s when authors write in a more descriptive style, creating more of a visual rather than just relaying facts.
  • Persuasive Writing – This writing style is mostly used in order to persuade others to take some sort of action and includes cover letters, reviews, advertisements, web copy, and more. The goal is to convince the readers of something one way or another.
  • Narrative Writing – This type of writing style is usually exclusive to fiction and is when the writer is constructing a story and plot by using descriptive writing to help you visualize it.
These different writing styles aren’t typically exclusive to one project. You can use various of them in a single work, which is often what books are.
We’ll cover some specific examples to help you understand further below.

Writing Style Examples

Sometimes it’s easier to understand through examples than just simply reading a definition.
Here are some examples of the different types of writing style to help you get the gist for understanding what writing style is and how you can use that to adapt and create your own.

Expository Writing Style Examples:

As stated above, expository writing is the most common type and basically just relays necessary information.
Here are some examples of expository writing:
  • Textbooks
  • Recipes
  • How-tos
  • Instructions
  • Technical writing
  • Business writing
  • Scientific writing

Descriptive Writing Style Examples:

You can write in a number of different ways with descriptive writing. Even expository writing can include descriptive within it.
Here are examples of descriptive writing:
  • Fiction novels
  • Plays
  • Songs
  • Poetry
  • Journaling or Diaries
  • Nature/Animal descriptions

Persuasive Writing Style Examples:

Remember when you had to write a “persuasive” essay in school in order to learn how to make an argument? That’s what persuasive writing is.
You want your readers to leave agreeing with you on some matter.
Here are examples of persuasive writing:
  • Resum├Ęs
  • Cover Letters
  • Product/service reviews
  • Letters of recommendation
  • Newspaper articles
  • Advertisements
  • Website sales copy
  • Letters of complaint

Narrative Writing Style Examples:

When you think of books, they’ll typically fall under this writing style. If you’re trying to discover your personal writing style, you’ll likely be writing in the narrative style.
Here are examples of narrative writing styles:
  • Anecdotes
  • Oral histories
  • Novellas
This writing style is the type we’re really going to focus on in this next section all about how to develop your own writing style and find your natural flow as a writer.

How to Find Your Writing Style

I myself, like to write in two different styles to express who I am as a person and access my creativity. For these two styles, I actually own two separate blogs; one on travel parenting and one on my faith.
My travel/parenting blog allows me to express myself with humor. This allows parents to identify with me by seeing the lighter side of parenting. My faith blog is a more serious destination where readers can come to learn more about the bible.
I enjoy writing in both styles. The two blogs allow me to enjoy these writing styles without confusing my readers.
So how do you, as a writer, find your place in the writing world and develop a writing style that suits you?
Here a four ways that you can find and develop your own writing style:

#1 – Read a lot

Why is reading so important? Reading allows you to learn from other people’s knowledge and lets you immerse in their world. It allows you to develop your own writing style.
Reading other people’s work will influence your own writing. This is because we tend to write in a similar way to what we read on a regular basis.
If you aren’t currently reading every day I would encourage you to do so. Find something that interests you and start reading, whether it be in a book, via a website, or another place.
Make it a daily habit to spend at least half an hour devouring someone else’s work.
As you read more and more, your own style of writing will deepen. It will develop based on your own experiences and the influences you have had.
You can broaden your own horizons as an author by reading various styles of writing. Reading will show you new ways of wording sentences and creative ideas you hadn’t thought of.

#2 – Be honest to who you are

When you write, remember to stay true to who you are. Writing is an art-form that allows you to express yourself from within.
Trying to be someone you are not will hinder your writing journey, not help it.
When I say be honest with who you are, I mean staying true to yourself. This will include your own values, your beliefs, your feelings and who you are as a person.
Trying to write a comedic piece when you don’t usually use humor will be difficult and often not read well. This is because you may be forcing this writing and the piece will not flow.When you write something that is not from who you are, it can confuse your reader. This is because it will be difficult to sustain your voice as a writer. When your style changes or doesn’t flow well, it makes it harder for the reader to identify who you are. As a result they may not want to read more of your work.
When you writes from within, the reader is able to see parts of who you are as a person and can get to know you better.
I read a book a while back on business growth. It was a good book and I learnt a lot from it. As a result I then followed the author and starting reading her other books. Shortly after this she changed styles. The trend at that time was beginning to bring in swear words to make someone seem ”kick ass”.
This author jumped on that trend and began swearing through all her books. I don’t mean one or two swear words dispersed throughout. One of her books had so many swear words in it that her book would have been several pages shorter if she had left them out.
This writer delighted in telling her readers that this particular book had only taken her four hours to write. The problem was you could tell that it didn’t have the flow or content of her other books.
It felt forced and more as if she created it to make money rather than give to the reader.
To me as a reader I felt like she was trying to be someone she wasn’t and I lost interest in her work and didn’t bother after that. It felt a bit sad because she had some good information to share but appeared to lose sight of who she was as a writer.
When you write from who you are you will not need to change your style part way through. Find your own style of writing and own it!

#3 – Write what comes with ease

Writing as part of who you are should come to you naturally and not feel weird or be a huge struggle. You may have times that you feel like you have writer’s block, or struggle to come up with what you want to say but this shouldn’t be the norm.
If you find that writing in general is difficult it could be for several reasons:
  1. You have not created a writing habit to allow it to flow for you
  2. You are lacking in inspiration for your topic
  3. You are not writing in a style that is true to you
If you have created a proper writing habit and you are stuck, try getting inspiration. This could mean reading other forms of writing to refresh you or taking a break from writing. A half hour walk while you listen to music may be all it takes to put you back on track.
If you are still struggling, then chances are, you are not writing in a style that is congruent to who you are.

#4 – Express yourself naturally

I’m an extrovert and I thrive from the people in my life who I spend time with. As you can tell I love to use a conversational writing style when I put pen to paper.
For me it feels like I am able to share my thoughts and feelings with someone like I would if they were sitting next to me.
That style of writing comes naturally to me and flows easily.
When you write, choose a style that allows you to express yourself. That may be in expressing yourself through creative writing, allowing the poet in you to come alive or sharing your life experiences in a helpful how-to form.
Whatever it is, it should leave you feeling like you have shared what you want to. You should feel energized and excited about your work, not drained and struggling to create more.
Once you have found your style the only other thing you can do is write, write, and keep writing. The more you write, the easier it will come to you and the better you will become at expressing yourself through your words. You have a gift to write and you need to use it to share your message with the world.
Today plan your daily habit of reading and writing and watch your life grow and move you to the next level of your writing career.

Four Types of Writing

A writer’s style is a reflection of his or her personality, unique voice, and way of approaching the audience and readers.
However, every piece writers write is for a specific purpose—for example, writers may want to explain how something works or persuade people to agree with their point of view. While there are as many writer's styles as there are writers, there are only four general purposes that lead someone to write a piece, and these are known as the four styles, or types, of writing. Knowing all four different types and their usages is important for any writer.
Here are the categories and their definitions:

1. Expository

Expository writing's main purpose is to explain. It is a subject-oriented writing style, in which authors focus on telling you about a given topic or subject without voicing their personal opinions. These types of essays or articles furnish you with relevant facts and figures but do not include their opinions. This is one of the most common types of writing. You always see it in textbooks and how-to articles. The author just tells you about a given subject, such as how to do something.
Key Points:
  • Usually explains something in a process.
  • Is often equipped with facts and figures.
  • Is usually in a logical order and sequence.
When You Would Use Expository Writing:
  • Textbook writing.
  • How-to articles.
  • Recipes.
  • News stories (not including opinion or editorial pieces).
  • Business, technical, or scientific writing.
Example:
Many people associate the taste of pumpkins with fall. In October, companies from Starbucks to McDonalds roll out their pumpkin-flavored lattes and desserts. Here is how to make an easy pumpkin pie using only five ingredients. First, make sure you have all of the ingredients.
This writing is expository because it is explaining. In this case, you can already tell that the piece will be about how to make a pumpkin pie.
Non-example:
Everyone knows that the best part about fall is all of the pumpkin-flavored desserts. Pumpkin pie is the best fall treat because it is not only delicious but also nutritious. Pumpkin is filled with vitamin A, which is essential for a healthy immune system and good vision.
This is not expository because several opinions are stated, such as “Pumpkin pie is the best fall treat…” Although this excerpt contains a fact about pumpkin containing vitamin A, that fact is used as evidence to support the opinion. These opinions make this an example of persuasive writing.

2. Descriptive

writing's main purpose is to describe. It is a style of writing that focuses on describing a character, an event, or a place in great detail. It can be poetic when the author takes the time to be very specific in his or her descriptions.

Example:
In good descriptive writing, the author will not just say: “The vampire killed his lover.”
He or she will change the sentence, focusing on more details and descriptions, like: “The bloody, red-eyed vampire, sunk his rust-colored teeth into the soft skin of his lover and ended her life."
Key Points:
  • It is often poetic in nature
  • It describes places, people, events, situations, or locations in a highly-detailed manner.
  • The author visualizes what he or she sees, hears, tastes, smells, and feels.
When You Would Use Descriptive Writing:
  • Poetry
  • Journal or diary writing
  • Nature writing
  • Descriptive passages in fiction
Example:
The iPhone 6 is unexpectedly light. While size of its screen is bigger than those of the iPhones that came before, it is thinner, and its smooth, rounded body is made of aluminum, stainless steel, and glass. The casing comes in a whitish silver, gold, or a color the company calls “space gray,” the color of the lead of a pencil, with darker gray accents.
This is an example because it describes aspects of the phone. It includes details such as the size, weight, and material.
Non-example:
So you just brought home a shiny new smartphone with a smooth glass screen the size of your palm. The first thing you will want to do when purchasing a new cell is buy a case. Cracking your screen is an awful feeling, and protection is inexpensive when you compare it to the costs of a new phone.
Even though this example uses adjectives, you can tell that this is not an example of descriptive writing because the purpose is not to describe the phone—it’s to persuade you to buy a case.

3. Persuasive

Persuasive writing's main purpose is to convince. Unlike expository writing, persuasive writing contains the opinions and biases of the author. To convince others to agree with the author's point of view, persuasive writing contains justifications and reasons. It is often used in letters of complaint, advertisements or commercials, affiliate marketing pitches, cover letters, and newspaper opinion and editorial pieces.
Key Points:
  • Persuasive writing is equipped with reasons, arguments, and justifications.
  • In persuasive writing, the author takes a stand and asks you to agree with his or her point of view.
  • It often asks for readers to do something about the situation (this is called a call-to-action).
When You Would Use Persuasive Writing:
  • Opinion and editorial newspaper pieces.
  • Advertisements.
  • Reviews (of books, music, movie, restaurants, etc.).
  • Letter of recommendation.
  • Letter of complaint.
  • Cover letters
Example:
Following the 2012 Olympic Games hosted in London, the UK Trade and Investment department reported a £9.9 billion boost to the economy. Although it is expensive to host the Olympics, if done right, they can provide real jobs and economic growth. This city should consider placing a bid to host the Olympics.
This is persuasive writing because the author has a belief—that “this city should consider placing a bid to host the Olympics”—and is trying to convince others to agree.
Non-example:
According to legend, the Olympics were founded by Hercules. Now almost 100 countries participate in the Games, with over two million people attending. So cities from Boston to Hamburg begin considering their bid to be a host city more than 10 years in advance.
All of these statements are facts. Therefore it’s expository. To be persuasive writing, you must have an opinion that you’re trying to persuade people of—then, of course, you will support that opinion with evidence.

4. Narrative

Narrative writing's main purpose is to tell a story. The author will create different characters and tell you what happens to them (sometimes the author writes from the point of view of one of the characters—this is known as first person narration). Novels, short stories, novellas, poetry, and biographies can all fall in the narrative writing style. Simply, narrative writing answers the question: “What happened then?”
Key Points:
  • A person tells a story or event.
  • Has characters and dialogue.
  • Has definite and logical beginnings, intervals, and endings.
  • Often has situations like actions, motivational events, and disputes or conflicts with their eventual solutions.
Examples of When You Would Use Persuasive Writing:
  • Novels
  • Short stories
  • Novellas
  • Poetry
  • Autobiographies or biographies
  • Anecdotes
  • Oral histories
Example:
“I don’t think that’s a good idea,” said Jaelyn.
“You never used to be such a girl!” retorted Orin, pushing open the door.
Reluctantly, Jaelyn followed.
This is a narrative because it’s telling a story. There are different characters conversing, and a plot is unravelling.
Non-example:
Cutting Edge Haunted House holds the Guinness World Record for the largest haunted house on earth. It’s located in a district in Fort Worth, Texas known as "Hell's Half Acre" in a century-old abandoned meat-packing plant. The haunted house takes an hour to complete, winding through horrific scenes incorporating the factory's original meat-packing equipment.
While this would serve as a worthy setting for a story, it would need a plot before it could be called a narrative.

TYPES OF WRITING STYLES

There are four main types of writing: expository, descriptive, persuasive, and narrative. Each of these writing styles is used for a specific purpose. A single text may include more than one writing style.
EXPOSITORY
Expository writing is one of the most common types of writing. When an author writes in an expository style, all they are trying to do is explain a concept, imparting information from themselves to a wider audience. Expository writing does not include the author’s opinions, but focuses on accepted facts about a topic, including statistics or other evidence.

Examples of Expository Writing

  • Textbooks
  • How-to articles
  • Recipes
  • News stories (not editorials or Op-Eds)
  • Business, technical, or scientific writing

DESCRIPTIVE

Descriptive writing is often found in fiction, though it can make an appearance in nonfiction as well (for example, memoirs, first-hand accounts of events, or travel guides). When an author writes in a descriptive style, they are painting a picture in words of a person, place, or thing for their audience. The author might employ metaphor or other literary devices in order to describe the author’s impressions via their five senses (what they hear, see, smell, taste, or touch). But the author is not trying to convince the audience of anything or explain the scene – merely describe things as they are.

Examples of Descriptive Writing

  • Poetry
  • Journal/diary writing
  • Descriptions of Nature
  • Fictional novels or plays

PERSUASIVE

Persuasive writing is the main style of writing you will use in academic papers. When an author writes in a persuasive style, they are trying to convince the audience of a position or belief. Persuasive writing contains the author’s opinions and biases, as well as justifications and reasons given by the author as evidence of the correctness of their position. Any “argumentative” essay you write in school should be in the persuasive style of writing.

Examples of Persuasive Writing

  • Cover letters
  • Op-Eds and Editorial newspaper articles
  • Reviews of items
  • Letters of complaint
  • Advertisements
  • Letters of recommendation

NARRATIVE

Narrative writing is used in almost every longer piece of writing, whether fiction or nonfiction. When an author writes in a narrative style, they are not just trying to impart information, they are trying to construct and communicate a story, complete with characters, conflict, and settings.

Examples of Narrative Writing

  • Oral histories
  • Novels/Novellas
  • Poetry (especially epic sagas or poems)
  • Short Stories
  • Anecdotes

Monday, August 5, 2019

WHAT IS TEFL?

The acronym "TEFL" stands for "Teaching English as a Foreign Language".
When people say "TEFL", they are generally referring to a world of English teaching, where the students are not native speakers of English, and where the teachers may or may not be native speakers of English.
TEFL exists in practically every country worldwide because the demand for learning English has never been higher. TEFL exists in countries where English is not the first language (for example Brazil, China, France) as well as in countries where English is the first language (for example Australia, Canada, United Kingdom).
Note that TEFL refers to the teaching of English, not its learning. It therefore concentrates more on teachers or those wishing to teach rather than on learners. (Of course, teachers have to know a lot about learning, but that is another matter.)
The range of situations where people are teaching English as a foreign language is very broad. Easily the greatest number of TEFL teachers worldwide are indigenous teachers working in local primary and secondary schools (for example, a Brazilian teacher of English teaching English to Brazilian schoolchildren in their local school). This is due to the sheer population numbers involved and the fact that so many schoolchildren worldwide learn at least some English at school. However, beyond that there is still a vast range of TEFL situations, including:
  • private language schools
  • corporate training departments
  • kindergartens
  • universities
  • government-sponsored programmes
  • private/freelance teaching
  • summer camps and charity organizations
Learners of English are students of all ages, from small children to octogenarians. They are all levels, from absolute beginner to virtually fluent. They could be studying in "one-to-one" classes or in groups ranging from 3 to over 50 students. Sometimes they study by telephone or online. Apart from learning "general English" (ie, grammar, conversation, reading/writing etc), many learners also take more specialized classes, eg exam preparation, academic English or business English.
TEFL teachers fall into two loose groups:
1. native English-speaking teachers, for example
  • an Australian teacher of English teaching English to immigrants in Australia
  • a Canadian teacher of English teaching English to Brazilian students in Brazil
2. non-native English-speaking teachers, for example
  • a Thai teacher of English teaching English to Thai schoolchildren in Thailand
  • a Polish teacher of English teaching English to French students in France

TUGAS TEFL

1. Explain the history of language teaching and tell who are taken role on it!
                The history of language teaching methods began with grammar teaching of Latin and Greek. And then the method was improved with the introduction of translation in teaching the languages which was popularly known as the grammar translation method it is also called the classical method. And then the method was replaced with direct method which emphasized on mastery the language target. Finally the second half of twentieth century appeared new method namely Audio Lingual Method, Community Language Learning, total physical response, Communicative language teaching and others.
                There are several pioneers who had done the improvement of TEFL: Jan Comenius, Meidenger, and Karl Plotz.

2. What are hierrchical arrangements in language teaching according to Anthony? Explain about the differences of them!


3. What are the differences of acquisition and learning according to Krashen?
                Acquisition refers to the process of learning another language in which language learners are not always aware of the results; they are not very concerned with the grammatical rules and error correction. Learning refers to the process in which language learners’ talk about the rules of another language and they correct the errors.

4. What are the procedures of teaching language using Direct Method? Give example!
a.       each student has a reading passage in front of her/him
b.      the students are called one by one to read the passage loudly
c.       after reading the passage te students are asked in the target language if they have any question
d.      the teacher answer the student's question in the target language
e.      the teacher works with the students on the pronunciation
f.        the teacher gives questions to the students and the questions and the statements are about the students in the classroom.
g.       the students make up their own questions and statements and direct them to other students in the classroom
h.      the teacher instruct the students to turn to an exercise in the lesson which asks them to fill the blanks.
i.         the students read a sentence out loud and supply the missing word as they are reading
j.        the teacher asks the students to take out btheir notebooks and he/she gives them a ditation; the passage is about the topic that has been discussed.

5. How grammar translation method applied in classroom?
a.       students are given a grammar role and based on the example they apply the rule by using new word
b.      students memorize the rule and the vocabulary provided
c.       Students practice the rule by using vocabulary provided.
d.      students translate the sentences from Indonesia to English
e.      students translate the sentences from English to Indonesia
f.        teacher corrects the students' errors by providing the right answers
g.       teacher has students' work writing out the translation of a passage from English into Indonesia