Tuesday, August 6, 2019
What is writing style?
Types of Writing Styles
Writing Style Examples
Expository Writing Style Examples:
Descriptive Writing Style Examples:
Persuasive Writing Style Examples:
Narrative Writing Style Examples:
How to Find Your Writing Style
Four Types of Writing
A writer’s style is a reflection of his or her personality, unique voice, and way of approaching the audience and readers.
However, every piece writers write is for a specific purpose—for example, writers may want to explain how something works or persuade people to agree with their point of view. While there are as many writer's styles as there are writers, there are only four general purposes that lead someone to write a piece, and these are known as the four styles, or types, of writing. Knowing all four different types and their usages is important for any writer.
Here are the categories and their definitions:
Expository writing's main purpose is to explain. It is a subject-oriented writing style, in which authors focus on telling you about a given topic or subject without voicing their personal opinions. These types of essays or articles furnish you with relevant facts and figures but do not include their opinions. This is one of the most common types of writing. You always see it in textbooks and how-to articles. The author just tells you about a given subject, such as how to do something.
- Usually explains something in a process.
- Is often equipped with facts and figures.
- Is usually in a logical order and sequence.
When You Would Use Expository Writing:
- Textbook writing.
- How-to articles.
- News stories (not including opinion or editorial pieces).
- Business, technical, or scientific writing.
Many people associate the taste of pumpkins with fall. In October, companies from Starbucks to McDonalds roll out their pumpkin-flavored lattes and desserts. Here is how to make an easy pumpkin pie using only five ingredients. First, make sure you have all of the ingredients.
This writing is expository because it is explaining. In this case, you can already tell that the piece will be about how to make a pumpkin pie.
Everyone knows that the best part about fall is all of the pumpkin-flavored desserts. Pumpkin pie is the best fall treat because it is not only delicious but also nutritious. Pumpkin is filled with vitamin A, which is essential for a healthy immune system and good vision.
This is not expository because several opinions are stated, such as “Pumpkin pie is the best fall treat…” Although this excerpt contains a fact about pumpkin containing vitamin A, that fact is used as evidence to support the opinion. These opinions make this an example of persuasive writing.
writing's main purpose is to describe. It is a style of writing that focuses on describing a character, an event, or a place in great detail. It can be poetic when the author takes the time to be very specific in his or her descriptions.
In good descriptive writing, the author will not just say: “The vampire killed his lover.”
He or she will change the sentence, focusing on more details and descriptions, like: “The bloody, red-eyed vampire, sunk his rust-colored teeth into the soft skin of his lover and ended her life."
- It is often poetic in nature
- It describes places, people, events, situations, or locations in a highly-detailed manner.
- The author visualizes what he or she sees, hears, tastes, smells, and feels.
When You Would Use Descriptive Writing:
- Journal or diary writing
- Nature writing
- Descriptive passages in fiction
The iPhone 6 is unexpectedly light. While size of its screen is bigger than those of the iPhones that came before, it is thinner, and its smooth, rounded body is made of aluminum, stainless steel, and glass. The casing comes in a whitish silver, gold, or a color the company calls “space gray,” the color of the lead of a pencil, with darker gray accents.
This is an example because it describes aspects of the phone. It includes details such as the size, weight, and material.
So you just brought home a shiny new smartphone with a smooth glass screen the size of your palm. The first thing you will want to do when purchasing a new cell is buy a case. Cracking your screen is an awful feeling, and protection is inexpensive when you compare it to the costs of a new phone.
Even though this example uses adjectives, you can tell that this is not an example of descriptive writing because the purpose is not to describe the phone—it’s to persuade you to buy a case.
Persuasive writing's main purpose is to convince. Unlike expository writing, persuasive writing contains the opinions and biases of the author. To convince others to agree with the author's point of view, persuasive writing contains justifications and reasons. It is often used in letters of complaint, advertisements or commercials, affiliate marketing pitches, cover letters, and newspaper opinion and editorial pieces.
- Persuasive writing is equipped with reasons, arguments, and justifications.
- In persuasive writing, the author takes a stand and asks you to agree with his or her point of view.
- It often asks for readers to do something about the situation (this is called a call-to-action).
When You Would Use Persuasive Writing:
- Opinion and editorial newspaper pieces.
- Reviews (of books, music, movie, restaurants, etc.).
- Letter of recommendation.
- Letter of complaint.
- Cover letters
Following the 2012 Olympic Games hosted in London, the UK Trade and Investment department reported a £9.9 billion boost to the economy. Although it is expensive to host the Olympics, if done right, they can provide real jobs and economic growth. This city should consider placing a bid to host the Olympics.
This is persuasive writing because the author has a belief—that “this city should consider placing a bid to host the Olympics”—and is trying to convince others to agree.
According to legend, the Olympics were founded by Hercules. Now almost 100 countries participate in the Games, with over two million people attending. So cities from Boston to Hamburg begin considering their bid to be a host city more than 10 years in advance.
All of these statements are facts. Therefore it’s expository. To be persuasive writing, you must have an opinion that you’re trying to persuade people of—then, of course, you will support that opinion with evidence.
Narrative writing's main purpose is to tell a story. The author will create different characters and tell you what happens to them (sometimes the author writes from the point of view of one of the characters—this is known as first person narration). Novels, short stories, novellas, poetry, and biographies can all fall in the narrative writing style. Simply, narrative writing answers the question: “What happened then?”
- A person tells a story or event.
- Has characters and dialogue.
- Has definite and logical beginnings, intervals, and endings.
- Often has situations like actions, motivational events, and disputes or conflicts with their eventual solutions.
Examples of When You Would Use Persuasive Writing:
- Short stories
- Autobiographies or biographies
- Oral histories
“I don’t think that’s a good idea,” said Jaelyn.“You never used to be such a girl!” retorted Orin, pushing open the door.Reluctantly, Jaelyn followed.
This is a narrative because it’s telling a story. There are different characters conversing, and a plot is unravelling.
Cutting Edge Haunted House holds the Guinness World Record for the largest haunted house on earth. It’s located in a district in Fort Worth, Texas known as "Hell's Half Acre" in a century-old abandoned meat-packing plant. The haunted house takes an hour to complete, winding through horrific scenes incorporating the factory's original meat-packing equipment.
While this would serve as a worthy setting for a story, it would need a plot before it could be called a narrative.
Monday, August 5, 2019
The acronym "TEFL" stands for "Teaching English as a Foreign Language".
When people say "TEFL", they are generally referring to a world of English teaching, where the students are not native speakers of English, and where the teachers may or may not be native speakers of English.
TEFL exists in practically every country worldwide because the demand for learning English has never been higher. TEFL exists in countries where English is not the first language (for example Brazil, China, France) as well as in countries where English is the first language (for example Australia, Canada, United Kingdom).
Note that TEFL refers to the teaching of English, not its learning. It therefore concentrates more on teachers or those wishing to teach rather than on learners. (Of course, teachers have to know a lot about learning, but that is another matter.)
The range of situations where people are teaching English as a foreign language is very broad. Easily the greatest number of TEFL teachers worldwide are indigenous teachers working in local primary and secondary schools (for example, a Brazilian teacher of English teaching English to Brazilian schoolchildren in their local school). This is due to the sheer population numbers involved and the fact that so many schoolchildren worldwide learn at least some English at school. However, beyond that there is still a vast range of TEFL situations, including:
- private language schools
- corporate training departments
- government-sponsored programmes
- private/freelance teaching
- summer camps and charity organizations
Learners of English are students of all ages, from small children to octogenarians. They are all levels, from absolute beginner to virtually fluent. They could be studying in "one-to-one" classes or in groups ranging from 3 to over 50 students. Sometimes they study by telephone or online. Apart from learning "general English" (ie, grammar, conversation, reading/writing etc), many learners also take more specialized classes, eg exam preparation, academic English or business English.
TEFL teachers fall into two loose groups:
1. native English-speaking teachers, for example
- an Australian teacher of English teaching English to immigrants in Australia
- a Canadian teacher of English teaching English to Brazilian students in Brazil
2. non-native English-speaking teachers, for example
- a Thai teacher of English teaching English to Thai schoolchildren in Thailand
- a Polish teacher of English teaching English to French students in France
1. Explain the history of language teaching and tell who are taken role on it!
The history of language teaching methods began with grammar teaching of Latin and Greek. And then the method was improved with the introduction of translation in teaching the languages which was popularly known as the grammar translation method it is also called the classical method. And then the method was replaced with direct method which emphasized on mastery the language target. Finally the second half of twentieth century appeared new method namely Audio Lingual Method, Community Language Learning, total physical response, Communicative language teaching and others.
There are several pioneers who had done the improvement of TEFL: Jan Comenius, Meidenger, and Karl Plotz.
2. What are hierrchical arrangements in language teaching according to Anthony? Explain about the differences of them!
3. What are the differences of acquisition and learning according to Krashen?
Acquisition refers to the process of learning another language in which language learners are not always aware of the results; they are not very concerned with the grammatical rules and error correction. Learning refers to the process in which language learners’ talk about the rules of another language and they correct the errors.
4. What are the procedures of teaching language using Direct Method? Give example!
a. each student has a reading passage in front of her/him
b. the students are called one by one to read the passage loudly
c. after reading the passage te students are asked in the target language if they have any question
d. the teacher answer the student's question in the target language
e. the teacher works with the students on the pronunciation
f. the teacher gives questions to the students and the questions and the statements are about the students in the classroom.
g. the students make up their own questions and statements and direct them to other students in the classroom
h. the teacher instruct the students to turn to an exercise in the lesson which asks them to fill the blanks.
i. the students read a sentence out loud and supply the missing word as they are reading
j. the teacher asks the students to take out btheir notebooks and he/she gives them a ditation; the passage is about the topic that has been discussed.
5. How grammar translation method applied in classroom?
a. students are given a grammar role and based on the example they apply the rule by using new word
b. students memorize the rule and the vocabulary provided
c. Students practice the rule by using vocabulary provided.
d. students translate the sentences from Indonesia to English
e. students translate the sentences from English to Indonesia
f. teacher corrects the students' errors by providing the right answers
g. teacher has students' work writing out the translation of a passage from English into Indonesia